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Venom composition of Trimeresurus albolabris, T. insularis, T. puniceus and T. purpureomaculatus from Indonesia

Syahfitri Anita1,2, Arif Rahman Sadjuri3, Latri Rahmah3, Herjuno Ari Nugroho4, Mulyadi1, Wahyu Trilaksono1, Wiwit Ridhani5, Nabila Safira3, Hariman Bahtiar3, Maharani3, Amir Hamidy1, Adriansjah Azhari3 [ + show more ]

J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 2022, 28:e20210103
Received: 16 September 2021 | Accepted: 20 April 2022 | Published online: 06 July 2022


Background: Several studies have been published on the characterization of Trimeresurus venoms. However, there is still limited information concerning the venom composition of Trimeresurus species distributed throughout Indonesia, which contributes to significant snakebite envenomation cases. The present study describes a comparative on the composition of T. albolabris, T. insularis T. puniceus, and T. purpureomaculatus venoms originated from Indonesia. Methods: Protein content in the venom of four Trimeresurus species was determined using Bradford assay, and the venom proteome was elucidated using one-dimension SDS PAGE nano-ESI- LCMS/MS shotgun proteomics. Results: The venom of T. albolabris contained the highest protein content of 11.1 mg/mL, followed by T. puniceusT. insularis and T. purpureomaculatus venom with 10.7 μg/mL, 8.9 μg/mL and 5.54 mg/mL protein, respectively. In total, our venomic analysis identified 65 proteins belonging to 16 protein families in T. purpureomaculatus; 64 proteins belonging to 18 protein families in T. albolabris; 58 different proteins belonging to 14 protein families in T. puniceus; and 48 different proteins belonging to 14 protein familiesin T. insularis. Four major proteins identified in all venoms belonged to snake venom metalloproteinase, C-type lectin, snake venom serine protease, and phospholipase A2. There were 11 common proteins in all venoms, and T. puniceus venom has the highest number of unique proteins compared to the other three venoms. Cluster analysis of the proteins and venoms showed that T. puniceus venom has the most distinct venom composition. Conclusion: Overall, the results highlighted venom compositional variation of four Trimeresurus spp. from Indonesia. The venoms appear to be highly similar, comprising at least four protein families that correlate with venom’s toxin properties and function. This study adds more information on venom variability among Trimeresurus species within the close geographic origin and may contribute to the development of optimum heterologous antivenom.


Keywords: Trimeresurus albolabrisTrimeresurus insularisTrimeresurus puniceusTrimeresurus purpureomaculatus; Snake venom; Venom proteome.

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