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Skin secretions of Leptodactylidae (Anura) and their potential applications

Juan F. C. Carrillo1,2,3*, Amanda Galdi Boaretto1,3, Diego J. Santana1,2, Denise Brentan Silva1,3 [ + show more ]

J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 2024, 30:e20230042
Received: 02 August 2023 | Accepted: 04 December 2023 | Published online: 19 February 2024


The skin of anuran species is a protective barrier against predators and pathogens, showing also chemical defense by substances that represent a potential source for bioactive substances. This review describes the current chemical and biological knowledge from the skin secretions of Leptodactylidae species, one of the most diverse neotropical frog families. These skin secretions reveal a variety of substances such as amines (12), neuropeptides (16), and antimicrobial peptides (72). The amines include histamine and its methylated derivatives, tryptamine derivatives and quaternary amines. The peptides of Leptodactylidae species show molecular weight up to 3364 Da and ocellatins are the most reported. The peptides exhibit commonly glycine (G) or glycine-valine (GV) as C-terminal amino acids, and the most common N-terminal amino acids are glutamicacid (E), lysine (K), and valine (V). The substances from Leptodactylidae species have been evaluated against pathogenic microorganisms, particularly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the most active peptides showed MIC of 1-15 µM.Furthermore, some compounds showed also pharmacological properties such as immunomodulation, treatment of degenerative diseases, anticancer, and antioxidant. Currently, only 9% of the species in this family have been properly studied, highlighting a large number of unstudied species such as an entire subfamily (Paratelmatobiinae). The ecological context, functions, and evolution of peptides and amines in this family are poorly understood and represent a large field for further exploration.


Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides; Peptides; Amines; Antibiotic resistance

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