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Acute phase reactions in Daboia siamensis venom and fraction-induced acute kidney injury: the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways in in vivo rabbit  and ex vivo rabbit kidney models

Narongsak Chaiyabutr1, Jureeporn Noiprom2, Kanyanat Promruangreang2, Taksa Vasaruchapong3,  Panithi Laoungbua3, Orawan Khow2, Lawan Chanhome3, Visith Sitprija [ + show more ]

J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 2024, v 30:e20230070
Received: 08 September 2023 | Accepted: 25 March 2024 | Published online: 20 May 2024


Background: This study examines the direct nephrotoxic effects of Daboia siamensis venom (RVV) and venom fractions in in vivo and isolated perfused kidneys (IPK) to understand the role of inflammation pathways and susceptibility to oxidative stress in venom or fraction-induced acute renal failure. Methods: We administered RVV and its venom fractions (PLA2, MP, LAAO, and PDE) to rabbits in vivo and in the IPK model. We measured oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA) in kidney tissue, as well as inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10), MDA and GSH levels in plasma and urine. We also calculated fractional excretion (FE) for pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress biomarkers, including the ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines in urine after envenomation. Results: In both kidney models, significant increases in MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels were observed in kidney tissues, along with elevated concentrations of MDA and GSH in plasma and urine after injecting RVV and venom fractions. Moreover, RVV injections led to progressive increases in FEMDA and decreases in FEGSH. The concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in plasma increased in vivo, as well as in the urine of the IPK model, but not for IL-1β in both plasma and urine after RVV administrations. Urinary fractional excretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 tended to decrease in vivo but showed elevated levels in the IPK model. A single RVV injection in vivo disrupted the balance of urinary cytokines, significantly reducing either the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio or the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio. Conclusion: RVV induces renal tubular toxicity by increasing oxidative stress production and elevating inflammatory cytokines in urine. During the acute phase of acute kidney injury, the balance of urine cytokines shifts toward anti-inflammatory dominance within the first two hours post-RVV and venom fractions.


Keywords: Daboia siamensis venom; Venom fractions; Acute kidney injury; Oxidative stress; Inflammatory cytokines; Rabbits.

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